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Dzadz Essay

1441 words - 6 pages

|1958-1962 : une nouvelle République | |
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La IVe République, qui devait incarner le retour à la démocratie et à la légalité républicaine, ne dure que douze années. Marquée par des problèmes de fonctionnement institutionnels, elle ne résiste pas aux conflits liés à la décolonisation, en particulier à la guerre d'Algérie.
La crise de mai 1958 provoque une refonte de la constitution et la mise en place d'un nouveau régime conçu par et pour De Gaulle. La nouvelle constitution rompt de manière profonde avec la précédente et conduit à de ...view middle of the document...

Au moindre désaccord, les coalitions explosent, provoquant la chute du gouvernement. La question de la décolonisation va ainsi renforcer l'instabilité ministérielle.

b. La crise du 13 mai 1958

Le contexte de la guerre d'Algérie précipite la chute de la IVe République (voir fiche La guerre d'Algérie). Le 13 mai 1958, une manifestation est organisée par les colons à Alger. Ils tiennent à honorer la mémoire des soldats français tués par le FLN.
Ce même jour est annoncé à Paris l'investiture d'un nouveau président du conseil, Pierre Pfimlin. Celui-ci est connu pour être partisan d'une solution négociée avec le FLN. Pour les colons, cette position signifie que le gouvernement envisage peut-être l'indépendance de l'Algérie, ce qui à leurs yeux, est inacceptable.
La manifestation se radicalise et les insurgés établissent à Alger un Comité du Salut public qui traduit la rupture avec la politique du régime. Afin de défendre une Algérie française, ils réclament le retour du Général de Gaulle au pouvoir.

c. La prise du pouvoir par De Gaulle et la fin de la IVe République
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Figure emblématique de la Résistance et de la Libération, le général de Gaulle bénéficie d'une image positive auprès des Français. De par son statut de militaire, il apparaît, aux yeux des Pieds-noirs d'Algérie, comme un partisan de la lutte contre le FLN et donc un partisan du maintien de la souveraineté française. Par ailleurs, De Gaulle a toujours manifesté son opposition au régime de la IVe République, jugée trop faible.
En 1946, hostile au projet de constitution instituant cette république, il démissionne du gouvernement provisoire. Il apparaît donc, dans ce climat insurrectionnel, comme l'homme providentiel.
Le 15 mai, De Gaulle se déclare « prêt à assumer les pouvoirs de la République ». Malgré l'inquiétude de parlementaires de gauche qui craignent un coup de force et la mise en place d'un pouvoir autoritaire, De Gaulle rallie à lui une majorité d'hommes politiques. Le 29 mai, René Coty charge donc celui-ci de former un nouveau gouvernement. De Gaulle pose néanmoins une condition : sa prise de fonction doit conduire à un changement de constitution et donc de régime. C'est une large majorité qui investit le nouveau et dernier président du Conseil le 1er juin 1958. Deux jours plus tard, une loi constitutionnelle autorise le gouvernement à réviser le fonctionnement des institutions. C'est la fin de la IVe République.

2. La constitution de 1958 : un nouveau régime républicain

a. L'objectif de De Gaulle

Hostile au fonctionnement de la IIIe République, De Gaulle définit sa conception du fonctionnement des institutions à l'occasion d'un discours prononcé à Bayeux le 16 juin 1946. Il souhaite une fonction présidentielle renforcée avec un « chef de l'État, placé au dessus des partis ». L'échec de la IVe République est lié selon lui...

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