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Drug Addiction Essay

1736 words - 7 pages

 
 Youth health issues: Bullying what is bullying?

‘Bullying among children can be considered as a form of abuse’ (Dawkins, 1995). It has been put forward that bullying is a division of aggressive behavior and has been further characterized as repetitive and ‘an inability on behalf of the victim to defend him or herself’(Farrington ,1993, cited it Sapouna, 2008). We learn from Sapouna (2008) that bullying can take the form of ‘verbal (name calling), physical (hitting, kicking) or relational (deliberate exclusion from a group, spreading of malicious rumors).’ In defining bullying Pikes (1989, cited in Hoover, Oliver & Hazler,1992) introduces the idea of ‘mobbing’ . This refers ...view middle of the document...

This lead to the finding of Kumpulainen et al., (1998 ) that ‘bullying is a common phenomenon among children who are psychologically disturbed.’ The writer went on to say that there are ‘higher rates of psychological distress among both bullies and victims’ than those not involve. However, the literature is consistent in noting that the ‘bullied victims are the most troubled of the bully, victim, bully –victim triad’ (Juvonen et al., 2003; Ma, 2001; Pellegrino, 2002; Pellegrino et al., 1999;Salmivalli & Nieminen, 2002, cited in Cunningham, 2007). Should this leads agencies to focus more on the protecting the victim? Some schools have decided that the way forward is to have zero tolerance policies. This may include exclude all student who bully. However, if certainresearcher’s numbers are correct it could mean excluding from school, forty percent of the school aged population. Given the widespread nature of the problem can zero tolerance really mean ‘zero tolerance?”
 
We learn from the NHS ‘website teens for health’ (2008) that ‘anyone can be singled out by bullies.’ The NSPCC found that 31 per cent of children had been bullied at some point (Teens for health, 2008). This being the case, can anyone be bullied? Black and Jackson (2007) have put forward that there lies and ‘an imbalance of power’ between the parties involved in bullying.’ The bully is stronger through social status, physical prowess, age, cognitive abilities or skill.’ Is this imbalance of power the same across the genders? There is an extensive body of literature that suggests that boys are more likely than girls to be bullies as well as victims (Nansel et al.2001; Bolton & Smith, 1994; Bolton & Underwood, 1992, cited in Marsh, Parada, Craven, &Finger, 2004). This doesn’t mean girls cannot be bullies. Stephenson and Smith (1989, cited inKumpulainen et al., 1998 ) found that girls as well as boys fitted into the ‘five main groups of people involved in bullying’. These are : ‘dominating bullies, anxious bullies, bully-victims, classical victims, and provocative victims.’. These traits were also found by Sourander,Helstelä, Helenius and Piha (2000) to have clinical implications. Sourander et al.,(2000) notedthat ‘Bullying is especially associated with aggressive and antisocial behaviour while victimization is associated with internalizing problems.’ Whitney and Smith, (1989, cited inKumpulainen et al., 1998) found ‘bullies to be more prone to have criminal convictions later inlife, and more likely to be involved in serious, recidivist crime’. Are criminal convections later inlife a fair punishment for their actions? Or should something be done to help the bully?This leads to the question as what is the nature of these young people that make them prone tobeing a victim or a bully. In the search for a personality construct, many researchers have come to the agreement that ‘bullies are deficient in social information processing or may beintellectually disadvantaged’...

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