ECONOMIC HISTORY SHOWS THAT DEVELOPMENT HAS STARTED EVERYWHERE WITH THE BANKING SYSTEM AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TOWARDS FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF A COUNTRY IS HIGHEST IN THE INITIAL STAGE. MODERN BANKS PLAY AN IMPORTANT PART IN PROMOTING ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF A COUNTRY. BANKS PROVIDE NECESSARY FUNDS FOR EXECUTING VARIOUS PROGRAMMERS UNDERWAY IN THE PROCESS OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT. THEY COLLECT SAVINGS OF LARGE MASSES OF PEOPLE SCATTERED THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY, WHICH IN THE ABSENCE OF THE BANKS WOULD HAVE REMAINED IDEAL AND UNPRODUCTIVE. THESE SCATTERED AMOUNTS ARE COLLECTED, POOLED TOGETHER AND MADE AVAILABLE TO COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY FOR MEETING THE REQUIREMENTS.
Banking System in Bangladesh: Historical Overview
Bangladesh inherited its banking structure from the British regime and had 49 banks and other financial institutions before the Partition of India in 1947. The Dhaka Bank established in 1806 was the first commercial bank in the Bangladesh region of British India. Bengal Bank, the first British-Patronized modern bank established in India in 1784, had opened its two branches in 1873 in Sirajganj and Chittagong of Bangladesh region. Later in 1862, the Bengal Bank Purchased the Dhaka Bank and opened its first branch in Dhaka in the same year by reconstituting and merging the Dhaka Bank. Thereafter, another branch of Bengal Bank was opened in Chandpur in 1900. A number of other branches of Bengal Bank were opened in this region and some branches had been closed in Course of time. There were six other branches of Bengal Bank in operation in the territory of Bangladesh until the Partition of British-India in 1947 and these branches were at Chittagong (1906), Mymensing (1922), Rangpur (1923), Chandpur (1924), and Narayanganj (1926).
Following the emergence of Pakistan in 1947, Stat Bank of Pakistan, the Central Bank of the country, came into being in July 1948. Later, the National bank of Pakistan, a strong commercial bank was set up in 1949. In all, 36 scheduled commercial banks were in operation in the whole Pakistan until 1971. Pakistanis owned most of these banks and only three of them namely, National Bank of Pakistan, Habib Bank Ltd. and the Australasia Bank Ltd, had one branch of each in East Pakistan in 1949. During 1950-58, there other Pakistani-owned banks, Premier Bank Ltd., Bank of Bhowalpur Ltd. and Muslim Commercial Bank, had Opened their branch in East Pakistan. Four Pakistan-owned banks, the United Bank Ltd., Union Bank Ltd., Standard Bank Ltd. and the commerce Bank Ltd. Conducted banking business in the Province during 1959-1965.But all of them Had their headquarters in west Pakistan. East Pakistan had only two banks Owned by local business groups white headquarters in Dhaka. These were the Eastern Mercantile Bank Ltd. (Presently Pubali Bank Ltd.) and Eastern Banking Corporation Ltd. (Presently Uttara Bank Ltd.) established in 1959 and 1965 respectively.
In the beginning of 1971, there were 1130 branches of 12 banks in operation in East Pakistan. The foundation of independent banking system in Bangladesh was laid through the establishment of the Bangladesh Bank in 1972 by the Presidential Order No. 127of 1972 (which took effect on 16th December,1971). Through the Order, the eastern branch of the former State Bank of Pakistan at Dhaka was renamed as the Bangladesh Bank as a full-fledged office of the central bank of Bangladesh and the entire undertaking of the State Bank of Pakistan in, and in relation to Bangladesh has been delivered to the Bank.
Bangladesh Bank has been entrusted whit all of the traditional central banking functions...