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Dibujo Arquitectonico Essay

934 words - 4 pages

Dibujo Arquitectónico

Hugo Alvar Henrik Aalto, Internacionalmente conocido como Alvar Aalto nació en Kuortane, Finlandia el 3 de febrero de 1898 y murió en Helsinki, Finlandia el 11 de mayo de 1976, fue un importante arquitecto y diseñador finlandés. Formó parte del Movimiento Moderno y participó en los CIAM (Congresos Internacionales de Arquitectura Moderna). Ha sido el único arquitecto de la Segunda generación del Movimiento Moderno reconocido como "maestro", equiparándose así a los grandes maestros del Periodo heroico del Movimiento Moderno Le Corbusier, Mies van der Rohe y Gropius. En su honor se concede cada cinco años el premio Medalla Alvar Aalto.
Pensamiento y método proyectual
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Por otro lado, para Aalto la pintura y la arquitectura se habían influenciado mutuamente, así como pensaba que las artes compartían orígenes y procesos. En este sentido, se vio influido por los pintores Paul Cézanne y Fernand Léger, de quien fue amigo.
Etapas artísticas
* Romanticismo nacional
Aunque la obra de Aalto no puede incluirse en esta categoría, el Romanticismo nacional, nacido como movimiento social en 1891 en reacción a los dominios sueco y ruso, marcaba aún la arquitectura y el ámbito académico finlandés en su época de estudiante.
* Clasicismo nórdico
Recién iniciada la segunda década del XX el Clasicismo caló con fuerza entre los países del norte de Europa.
* Racionalismo
En esa época, en los que viaja mucho por Europa, Alvar Aalto se interesó más por los elementos sociales y culturales que brindaban las nuevas vanguardias, en especial en cuanto a la vivienda, convertida en centro de la arquitectura, que por sus posibilidades de producción en serie.
* Acentos personales
Una serie de obras realizadas más allá de 1930, entre las cuales sobresale Villa Mairea (1937), marcan una nueva fase en la obra de Alvar Aalto, en la que su arquitectura moderna pierde su pureza para enriquecerse con giros propios, quizá influidos por el superado romanticismo.
* Organicismo
Alvar Aalto estuvo en Estados Unidos entre 1946 y 1948, pudiendo entonces conocer personalmente al afamado arquitecto Frank Lloyd Wright, conocido sobre todo por sus obras organicistas (término que, como ya advirtió Bruno Zevi, es confuso y debería afinarse).
Obras arquitectónicas representativas
* Biblioteca de Viipuri
* Sanatorio de Paimio
* Villa Mairea
* Pabellón finlandés para la Exposición Universal de Nueva York de 1939
* Baker House
* Ayuntamiento de Säynätsalo
* Universidad Politécnica de Helsinki
* Torre de apartamentos en Bremen
* Biblioteca de Rovaniemi
Maison Carré

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