Diabetes- Potential Effects as a Chronic Process
Diabetes-Potential Effects as a Chronic Process
Diabetes is a serious problem in the United States. It is a disease where blood glucose levels are above normal. There are two types of diabetes, Type 1 diabetes (juvenile onset diabetes) and Type 2 diabetes (adult onset diabetes). Both types of diabetes exhibit similar symptoms or no symptoms at all. In this paper, we report the incidence of diabetes, typical signs and effect diabetes has on the body, teaching requirements and psycho-social challenges that go along with the disease.
Diabetes mellitus affects about 17 million people, 5.9 million are undiagnosed. In the United States, ...view middle of the document...
Other symptoms include fatigue and weakness, vision changes, skin lesions or wounds that are slow to heal and recurrent infections. The onset of type 1 diabetes may also be associated with sudden weight loss or nausea and vomiting while, type 2 diabetes is linked to obesity and a sedentary lifestyle (Bare, 2006).
Many untoward effects of the human body are direct results of diabetes. Every body
system is ultimately affected in time and especially if proper maintenance and care of the body is
neglected. Complications usually develop after several years, as a result of metabolism, diabetes
leads to life-threatening consequences, heart and vascular disease, and stroke. According to
Dagogo-Jack (2003) “Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in people with
diabetes.” Wound healing is slower in diabetics due to vascular issues. Neglect of wounds can
cause development of gangrene and the result would be amputation of the extremity. Also
related to vascular issues are retinal damage to the eyes leading to blindness. Baseline
examinations by an ophthalmologist are necessary to monitor and treat changes. Kidney damage,
another result of vascular insufficiencies, may produce kidney failure, creating the need for
dialysis, kidney transplant, or death.
“Life threatening complications of diabetes include diabetic coma or insulin shock” (Neighbors and Tannenhill-Jones 2006). Diabetic coma occurs as a result of inadequate amounts of insulin administered or increased carbohydrates. Patients need to observe symptoms of hyperglycemia, this onset is slow. Insulin shock is a rapid development and results from an increased amount insulin, inadequate diet, or increased exercise. Hypoglycemic symptoms will appear; the patient will display increased confusion, and slip into a coma. Utilization of treatment can minimize these complications.
Teaching a recently diagnosed diabetic patient, like Mr. D, how to self-manage is a multifaceted process. “This self-management includes monitoring and managing symptoms, adhering to treatment regimens, maintaining a healthy lifestyle, and managing the impact of the illness on a daily basis for the rest of one’s life” (Thoolen, Ridder, Bensing, Gorter, Rutten, 2007). When developing a teaching plan, the nurse must evaluate the patient’s needs and education level. Mr. D states that he has a busy schedule and does not have time to worry about himself so the nurse must use every opportunity available as a teachable moment to provide him with information. A nurse can use the 5 Ms, the American Association of Diabetes Educators method when teaching self-management skills are as follows:
Meter: monitoring blood sugars
Meds: taking medication
Meals: healthful eating
Move: being active
More: Problem solving, sick day management or responding to
hypo- or hyperglycemia; healthy coping, stress management; and