Describe and evaluate the Multi Store Model of memory. Refer to evidence in your answer.
Atkinson and Shiffrin created the Multi Store Model in 1968. It is a model showing where information is stored and how it is transferred between the Short Term Memory and the Long Term Memory. The MSM suggests that the memory is made up of three separate stores (sensory memory, STM and LTM) all three of these stores have different capacities. The sensory store has a large capacity but it is still limited, whereas the STM can only hold about 7+/-2 items, which again differs to the LTM, which has an unlimited capacity.
The MSM is said to have many advantages, but it also has many ...view middle of the document...
However, the ones in the middle had been held too long to stay in the STM but weren’t rehearsed enough to transfer into the LTM. This experiment proves that the MSM is accurate as it agrees with Atkinson and Shiffrin’s statement that the memory is made up of two separate stores.
Although the MSM gives us an idea of how we remember information and how long we remember it for, it is extremely simplistic, it also doesn’t account for individual difference, such as people with brain damage or disorders. This makes it lack ecological validity, as it cannot be generalised to everyone.
Furthermore, the MSM theory suggests that rehearsal is the only form of transferring information into the LTM. However, The Levels of Processing framework offers an alternative view. In 1972, Craik and Lockhart suggested that long lasting memories are created by the way you process them rather than through constant rehearsal. They identified three levels of processing: Shallow processing, which means the physical appearance, Phonetic processing, what it sounds likes and semantic level, what the meaning of the word is. Craik and Lockhart suggested that memory is better explained in terms of increasing depths of processing rather than separate stores which is what the MSM suggests.
However, The Levels od Processing Model is incomplete as it doesn’t tell us about the STM, it only focuses on the LTM and therefore the MSM is better for a description of both memories, even though it is not very detailed.