1. Define learning.
Learning is the process through which experience modifies behavior and understanding. Allows us to adapt to changing environments. Isn’t: Innate behavior, fixed action pattern or reflex.
Types of learning are Habituation, Classical conditioning, operant conditioning and observational learning.
2. Define classical conditioning, unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, conditioned stimulus, and conditioned response. Describe how classical conditioning works by using the stimuli and responses in an example.
Classical Conditioning: Ivan Pavlov.
3. Describe the processes of extinction and spontaneous recovery. Give an example of each.
Extinction – condition stimulus alone; just the meat powder alone.
Spontaneous recovery – condition stimulus alone; response spikes back up after extinction.
4. Define and give ...view middle of the document...
Law of effect- responses followed by positive outcomes are repeated; those followed by negative outcomes are not repeated. Edward L. Thorndike.
8. Define operant conditioning, and explain how it differs from classical conditioning.
Operant conditioning -
9. How do we determine what is a reinforcer?
- Increases behavior.
10. Define positive and negative reinforcers and give examples of each.
11. Explain how stimulus discrimination and stimulus generalization appear in operant conditioning.
Uses similar behaviors for lever pressing to get reward. (Rats for water in Skinner box).
Press when red light is on and not the green light. (Rats for water in Skinner box)
12. Define shaping. Explain how it is used in operant conditioning.
Shaping – reinforcing progress steps towards behavior.
13. Discuss the differences between primary and secondary reinforcers.
Primary reinforcers – satisfy biological needs
Secondary reinforcers – conditioned reinforcement ;
14. Define continuous and partial reinforcement schedules. Compare and contrast the fixed-ratio, variable-ratio, fixed-interval, and variable-interval reinforcement schedules; include a description of their effect on the intensity of operant responses and the partial reinforcement extinction effect.
Fixed Ratio – fixed number you have to do to get reinforcement
Variable Ratio – not a specific number to get reinforcement
Fixed Interval – you get paid after a certain amount of time
Variable Interval – based on passage of time; time you get paid can change
15. Define punishment and describe its role in operant conditioning. Discuss the disadvantages of and guidelines for using punishment.
Increasing a response:
- Positive reinforcement – rewarding stimulus
- Negative reinforcement – taking something away
Decreasing a response:
16. Define observational learning
- Learning by watching others
17. Define and give examples of habituation.
Example – getting used to the heat working outside