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Dbms (Obms & Oracle 91) Essay

4599 words - 19 pages

MC0067 - 01
Marks - 40 DBMS (OBMS & ORACLE 91)

1. Write a note on File based system/ Data base system


File-Based Systems:
Conventionally, Before the database Systems evolved , data in the software’s Systems was stored in and represented using flats files.

Drawbacks of File-Based Systems:

File - Based Systems


As shown in the figure, in a file-based system, different programs in the same application may be interacting with different private data files. There is no system enforcing any standardized control on the organization and structure of these data files.
• Data Redundancy and Inconsistency
Since data resides in different private data ...view middle of the document...

2. What are the Roles and responsibilities of database administrator?


The role of a DBA is very important and defined by the following functions.
• Defining the schema
The DBA defined the schema which contains the structures of the data in the application.

• Liaising with Users
The DBA needs to interact continuously with the users to understand the data in the system and its use.

• Defining Security & Integrity Checks
The DBA finds about the access restrictions to be defined and defines security checks accordingly. Data Integrity checks are also defined by the DBA.

• Defining Backup I Recovery Procedures
The DBA also defines procedures for backup and recovery. Defining backup procedures includes specifying what data is to backed up, the periodicity of taking backups and also the medium and storage place for the backup data.

• Monitoring Performance
The DBA has to continuously monitor the performance of the queries
and take measures to optimize all the queries in the application

3. Define the following terms
(i) Database
(ii) Database Management System
(iii) Data Model
(iv) Scheme
(v) Data independence
A Database is a collection of interrelated data and a Database Management system is a set of programs to use and/or modify this data.
Due to its centralized nature the database system can overcome the disadvantages of the file based system as discussed below:
• Minimal Data Redundancy
Since the whole data resides in one central database, the various
programs in the application can access data in different data files. And data need not to be duplicated.
• Data Consistency
Reduced data redundancy leads better data consistency.
As we can see that a Database offers various features over file based system.
Database Management System:
A Database is a collection of interrelated data and a Database Management system is a set of programs to use and/or modify this data.
Functions of DBMS:
• Data Security & Integrity
The DBMS contains functions which handle the security and integrity data in the application. These can be easily invoked by the applicatic and hence the application programmer need not code these function his/her programs.
• Data Recovery & Concurrency
Recovery of data after a system failure and concurrent access of data by multiple users are also handled by the DBMS.

• Data Dictionary Maintenance
Maintaining the Data Dictionary which contains the data definition application is also one of the functions of a DBMS.
• Performance
Optimizing the performance of the queries is one of the main functions of a DBMS. Hence the DBMS has a set of programs called the Query Optimizer which evaluates the different implement of query and chooses the best among them.

Data Model
A data model instance may be one of three kinds (according to ANSI in 1975[1]):

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