Cultural and Disease paper
Amy D. Talbert
February 14, 2011
Diabetes is the most common endocrine disorder of the human body. There are three types of diabetes, type I (Juvenile Diabetes), type II, and gestational. Type I diabetes, also called juvenile diabetes, strikes children, and young adults (American Diabetes Association, 1995-2011). Type II diabetes is more common in certain ethnic groups, and in older people. Gestational diabetes is only present during pregnancy and usually goes away after pregnancy; however some women will develop type II diabetes in later years (American Diabetes Association, 1995-2011). Type II diabetes is considered the ...view middle of the document...
This insulin pushes glucose into the body cells so there is always energy to feed the cells. When the body does not make enough insulin, or the body’s cells do not recognize insulin, diabetes is the culprit. Diabetes is recognized by low and high blood glucose (sugar) levels.
Risk Factors of type II Diabetes
Currently there are several identifying risk factors in the development of type II diabetes. Not everyone will develop type II diabetes if he or she has any of all of these risk factors, but medical discoveries show the chance increases with more risk factors (Web, M.D. 2005-2011). The primary risk factors are as follows:
1. Family History-if a family member has diabetes, one is at high risk
2. 45 or older-chance increases with age
3. Race or ethnic background-certain race or ethnic background has higher risk
4. Hypertension-high blood pressure increases risk
5. Cholesterol levels-abnormal high or low levels increases risk
6. History of gestational diabetes-acquiring diabetes during pregnancy increases risk
7. Obesity-increases risk, at any age
8. Inactivity-increases risk
Of these listed risk factors, half of them may be controlled to lessen the risk of acquiring diabetes.
Hypertension can be controlled through diet and medication. Cholesterol can be controlled through diet, exercise, and medication. Obesity can be controlled through diet and exercise. Inactivity can be controlled through exercise.
The risk of developing diabetes if a parent or sibling has diabetes is a risk factor that cannot be controlled. That risk factor is in the genetic makeup and cannot be altered or fixed. As a person ages, the risk of developing type II diabetes increases. The aging process cannot be controlled. If a person has a race or ethnic background of African American, Latino, Native American, Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and other Pacific Islanders, then he or she is at risk of developing type II diabetes (American Diabetes Association, 1995-2010). These backgrounds have been proven to have higher instances of developing the disease.
The disease diabetes, does not kill, the complications from possessing diabetes kills. Diabetes over time causes damage to the nerves, most notably in the feet, and damage to the small blood vessels of the eyes, kidneys, and heart (Web M.D., 2005-2011). Type II diabetes is responsible for two-thirds of the deaths from heart disease and stroke (Web M.D., 2005-2011). The higher number of risk factors a person has, the higher the risk of heart disease or stoke.
History of Diabetes treatment
In the 1700’s physicians prescribed very low calorie diets for patients suffering from diabetes. These low calorie diets kept the patients alive longer than those not on the diet, but often to the point of near starvation (Sattley, 2008). It was not until 1921 when insulin was discovered that patients had a chance to live a...