1.Mary carpenter was an English educator and juvenile rehabilitator, who strongly advocated reformatories for juveniles and houses of corrections for the idle. She was a powerful influence in New South Wales into the 20th century. She stated, “treatment should be according to the individuals need rather than being controlled by the offense he or she committed.” Stress was on the quality and adaptability of the offender. The movement advocated what could be seen as preventative justice that attempted to condition offenders against further offenses.
2.Inalienable rights are rights that inherent to being a human. They cannot be taken away and are considered the basis of human life. They are ...view middle of the document...
He developed several criminal “types” that were based on physical characteristics of offenders he observed in prison hospitals. The criminal subspecies was seen as a throwback to earlier stages of evolution.
6.Vigilantism is an organized movement that seeks to impose law and order, independent of the existing legal authorities. It can also fill the void in legal authority when there is none established. The American disposition toward violence is attributed to this tradition, by some. Throughout history the lack of law enforcement has created a vacuum that becomes filled by the private organization of vigilante groups.
7.Sir Robert Peel achieved the passage of the Metropolitan Police Act of 1829. The act set forth 12 principals of reform that are still pertinent in today’s system. Recent crime waves and riots prompted Peel to push the reform. The Metropolitan Police officers being called bobbies, resulted from the identification with Robert Peel.
8.Louis XIV used the divine right of kings to undermine the nobility and the clergy who had been the traditional figureheads of law enforcement in France. He began toward the centralization of French policing by passing a series of royal decrees in the in the 1600s.He separated the operations of the high courts from those of the police and appointed royal judges to serve in feudal courts.
9.Zeb Brockway was a prison warden who wrote the paper “ The Ideal of a True Prison System for a State”. The warden advocated a reformatory program that would prepare inmates for release. He was the first superintendant of the Elmira Reformatory. He developed a system at Elmira that granted him personal acquaintance with each of the prisoners, giving him an assessment of their character and potential for reform.
10.Debtor’s prisons were for those who cold not settle debts with their creditors. Debtors were imprisoned and denied the opportunity to make money in order to repay their creditors. It was the responsibility of the imprisoned to secure food, clothing, and all necessities. Since jailers often demanded gratuities when supplies were delivered, the debt grew as one was imprisoned. Jail Liberty programs were established for a short time, which allowed for the imprisoned to seek work within the town limits to repay his debt.
11.Prison labor was the foundation of the penitentiary movement. It familiarized inmates with the discipline of work and gave them a skill set to use in normal society. It also allowed prisons to make profits and reduce the burden of operation costs off the taxpayer. There were many labor programs, the price piece and contract labor programs invited private business to take advantage of inmate labor. This led to conflict with private entrepreneurs and the population of the industrial midlands that gained voting rights with the Reform Act of 1832.
12.The first National Prison Congress was held in Cincinnati, 1870. The gathering included wardens, prison officials and academics. It...