Crime is something that impacts everyone, whether directly as a victim or indirectly through societal and economic costs. From the early 1960s, in the United States, criminological research resulted from individual efforts. The reliance on individual investigators to conduct and oftentimes fund their own research agenda was primarily a function of a lack of funding sources devoted to issues surrounding criminology and criminal justice. However, research in criminal justice has dramatically increased.
The period between 1960 and 1980, saw the enormous increase in efforts in the federal government to initiate research projects that were designed to understand the extent of criminal behavior, ...view middle of the document...
It was well known that she was a bed wetter among the neighborhood children, of which Brian and Martin were part of. Her mother would publicly humiliate her when she did wet her bed by placing her mattress outside to show the neighborhood. Mary also stated that her mother would offer her to business customers. Mary, during her young years, would frequently be left with various family members and seemed to suffer from an alarmingly high number of supposed medicinal intoxications. It is later suggested her mother might have had Munchausen by proxy syndrome. Rowe (1986) (pp. 532)
The child was very intelligent, which alarmed police, as well as her actions during the trial. She did attend school, but not regularly. She was reported to have a very high IQ by psychiatrists working with her. It was suggested by defense attorney that because of her childhood, Mary suffered from sociopath logy. She was unable to connect to society through normal affectionate means because of the environment she was in. The neighborhood kids often laughed and made fun of her. She was humiliated constantly by her mother and never had a positive male role model. She responded to society with aggression and violence. Rowe (1986) (pp. 525)
An important point to make is that levels of education have been determined to be significant in the manifestation of criminal behavior. Individuals with learning disabilities have been shown to be more prone to violent behavior. The major reason for this is given in an interrelated causal pattern of events with education at the center. School achievement is predictive of pro-social behavior or behaviors designated as upholding the moral values of a society. This is because academic achievement is interrelated in our society with several other variables such as financial success, high self-esteem and an internal control. This particular model may account for reasoning behind the general idea that individuals with a high IQ generally have fewer tendencies for criminal behavior than individuals with a low IQ. Rowe (1986) (pp. 513)
The hypothesis is that having a higher IQ results in easier achievement in school. As stated above, doing well academically is associated with several societal factors as well. Individuals with a lower IQ may not succeed as much academically, which would result in lower self-esteem and not as much financial success, resulting in an increased disposition for criminal behavior. It is important then to stress education and to address issues with learning disabilities at an early age to disallow the appearance of these negative attributes.
Perhaps one of the most fundamental studies influencing scientific opinions of nature vs. nurture would be a study done comparing monozygotic versus dyzygotic twin pairs. In this study, twin pairs were examined for the concordance of criminal behavior for both twins. This is a study of particular interest because both sets of twins were raised in the same environment, but in...