The dictionary definition of the term “organizing” is “to put together into an orderly, functional, structured whole”. Therefore, this term applies to Computer Organization because it tries “to put together into an orderly, functional, structured whole” the main components of computers and the way computers are organized.
Modern computer technology requires professionals of every computing specialty to understand both hardware and software. The interaction between hardware and software at a variety of levels also offers a framework for understanding the fundamentals of computing. Whether our primary interacts is hardware or software, Information Technology, Computer ...view middle of the document...
The input, storage, processing, and output operations are governed by a list of instructions that constitute a program.
We should understand Computer Architecture in order to structure a program so that it runs more efficiently on a real machine. In selecting a system to use, we should be able to understand the trade off among various components such as CPU clock speed vs. Memory size. Computer Architecture is concerned with all aspects of the design and organization of the Central Processing Unit (CPU) and the integration of the CPU into the computer system itself. Architecture extends upward into computer software because a processor’s architecture must cooperate with the operating system and system software.
Computer Organization and Computer Architecture focuses on the function and design of the various components necessary to process information digitally. We present computing systems as a series of layers, starting with low-level hardware and progressing to higher-level software, including assemblers and operating systems. These levels constitute a hierarchy of virtual machines. The study of Computer Organization focuses on the hierarchy and the issues involved with how we partition the levels and how each level is implemented. It helps us to answer the question: “How does a computer work?” The study of Computer Architecture focuses on the interface between hardware and software, and emphasizes the structure and behaviour of the system. Studying Computer Architecture helps us to answer the question: “How do I design a computer?”
Also, Computer Organization is about how features are implemented. Features such as control signals which are sent or receive and how the computer is controlled, interfaces between the computer and peripherals, memory technology used, bus organization and handshaking signals are organizational. While, Computer Architecture is those attributes visible to the assembler language programmer or put another way, those attributes that have a direct impact on the logical execution of a program such as instruction sets and formats, number of bits used for data representation, operation codes, input/output mechanism, data types, addressing modes/techniques, main memory access methods and interrupt handling are architectural.
In addition, all Intel family and the IBM System share the same basic architecture. The success of Intel family encouraged IBM and other manufacturers to design many more families of computers, thereby establishing the distinction between organization and architecture.
Computer Organization is also devoted to Computer Hardware and Computer Architecture. Computer Hardware consists of electronic circuits, magnetic and optical storage devices/media, displays, electromechanical devices, and communication facilities. Computer Architecture encompasses and surrounds the specification of an instruction set and the functional behaviour of the computer and hardware units that implement the instructions.