This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Competing Theories Essay

1428 words - 6 pages

Competing Theories of Corrections
Ruth Cushman
American Intercontinental University
March 11, 2012

Competing Theories of Corrections
Correctional theories are series of interrelated propositions or assertions that attempt to describe, explain, predict, and define criminal behavior. There are many different theories that have been created over the years to help explain the relationships between criminal behavior and punishment. The theories of corrections have no doubt changed and shifted over the years, the more people began to understand the rationale behind criminal behavior. Several centuries ago, criminal behavior was once thought to sin ...view middle of the document...

For a long time, “retribution was solely a matter of inflicting suffering in return for wickedness” (Bradley, 2003, pg.6). Retribution is a call for punishment fueled by inner anger and a perceived need for vengeance. The theory of retribution follows the “just desserts” model of criminal sentencing, that believes when someone has been convicted and punished for a crime, they have received their “just desserts”. It is akin to a form of revenge taken by society as a whole against the perpetrator. “Retribution sees punishment as deserved, justified, and even required by the offender’s behavior” (Schmalleger, 2012). Punishment in the form of retribution helps to dissuade the victim or the victim’s family from pursuing their own brand of justice. The fact that punishment is given to the perpetrator, provides the victim with some sense of closure.
Another competing theory of corrections is incapacitation. Incapacitation is the use of imprisonment or other means to reduce the likelihood that an offender will commit future offenses. This theory is often thought of as the “lock ‘em up” approach to criminal activity. Incapacitation is the obvious purpose of imprisonment, because “offenders are removed from further offending in the community, at least for the duration of their prison sentence” (Wood, Williams, and James, 2010, pg.1). Unlike the theory of retribution, incapacitation only requires that there be restraint, not punishment.
The deterrence theory of corrections uses the example or threat of punishment to help convince people that criminal activity is not worth the risk of being caught and punished. The two types of deterrence used are specific and general deterrence. Specific deterrence seeks to prevent a particular offender from engaging in repeat criminality. While general deterrence, seeks to prevent others from committing crimes similar to the one for which a particular offender is being sentenced by making an example of the person sentenced. Deterrence is used as a means to scare individuals from wanting to commit crimes. Compliance with the law is reinforced through this fear of punishment. However, it is possible to investigate the amount of punishment required to deter crime (Schmalleger, 2012).
The rehabilitation theory of corrections is one that seeks to reform criminal offenders. The term rehabilitation literally means to return a person to their previous condition. Generally, rehabilitation works through educational and psychological treatment to help reduce the likelihood of future criminality However in most cases, restoring an offender to their previous state will only result in a more youthful type of criminality (Schmalleger, 2012). Although, there are effective treatment programs out there that do work to help rehabilitate offenders. Often drug offenders are the ones given the option of going into a rehabilitative program, in order to help them break the hold that drugs have on them.

Other assignments on Competing Theories

Organizational Behaviour Essay

910 words - 4 pages PROCESS THEORIES (goal setting and reinforcement theory) § Goal Setting Theory o Goals that are specific, difficult (but attainable), accepted and are accompanied by feedback, will motivate performance the best. Specific means measurable somehow. Difficult means that people need to exert some amount of effort over what they are used to doing. Accompanied by feedback means telling them how they’re doing. o It works because it focuses

Keeping The Good Employee Essay

1575 words - 7 pages employees will consider terminating their employment and possibly looking at competing companies (Williams, 1999). In the work domain, organizational commitment is also a popular factor to consider. Determining how attached and committed an employee is to their job may help recognizing their work behavior (Spector, 2012). Counterproductive behavior is any behavior that is opposite of the desired behavior that may help the organization thrive. It goes

Nathan The Gymnast

817 words - 4 pages Nathan the Gymnast As a toddler Nathan love to climb on things and he can balance on objects that was on the floor in his house. There are three learning theories Behaviorist, Cognitivist and Constructionist it can be put in an application that is hypothetical a gymnast by the name Nathan in this story Nathan the Gymnast .The first behaviorist theory is how to make Nathan turn his negative into positive reinforcement. In the story

Motivation Methods

2274 words - 10 pages Motivational Methods Paper Name HCS/325 Date Professor Motivational Methods Paper Motivation is a key element in the workplace and it is very important to know the basic theories methods and application because it is something that unavoidable all for us will come up with in our working environment. It is a necessary skill for a future manager or leader to know how to motivate other people in order to work more efficient. Thought this

Business Ethics

1356 words - 6 pages society has about what’s right and wrong. Morals guide our behavior, and help us to “do the right thing”. Two Types of Ethical Issues: * Ethical problem: a situation with ethical content requiring a choice between right and wrong. * Ethical conflict: a situation where a person must choose between competing principles of right (or competing principles of wrong) (more common) Code of ethics 93% Ethics committees 25

Is Management An Art Or Science

1726 words - 7 pages , when faced with a managerial problem, the manager who believes in the scientific foundation of his or her craft will expect that there is a rational and objective way to determine the correct course of action. This manager is likely to follow general principles and theories and also by creating and testing hypotheses. For example, If a manager was not impressed with the performance of a worker he will look for ways of improving his or her


7419 words - 30 pages (discussed below) would be designed to test these two propositions. TRADITIONAL PEDAGOGICAL THEORIES A major impetus for the development of the student involvement theory was my exasperation at the tendency of many academicians to treat the student as a kind of “black box.” On the input end of this black box are the various policies and programs of a college or university; on the output end are various types of achievement measures such as the GPA or

Ibc Case

4994 words - 20 pages discussions and individual as well as Team assignments. The course will expose you to a variety of theories and analytical frameworks that help in identifying the drivers of company performance. You will learn to apply these across a variety of companies and industries, in the process developing your ability to examine strategic issues from the perspective of the general manager of a corporation. As the general manager’s task cuts across

Internation Business

3058 words - 13 pages “ Competition for the future is competition to create and dominate emerging opportunities” (Prahalad, p. 21) Once the creating the future the company become a first player and can enjoy the benefit. Needless to say, the population is still rocket increasing therefore Uniqlo Ltd is only the company in this new business field. The following is based on Prahalad’s Core-Competence approach as well. Prahalad addresses in the Competing for the future

Report On Tesco

3649 words - 15 pages in the UK and number 3 worldwide amongst competing grocery chains. Their surge of success has much to do with advancing the corporations technology, such as CRM (Customer Relationship Management) software, this includes the highly successful Tesco Clubcard. Allowing Tesco to build their information technology with customer databases allowed them to develop their stores matching their customers' wants and needs, which is critical to the industry

Cognitive Views On Learning

3462 words - 14 pages and early 30’s saw behaviorism as the study of mechanical responses.  Kao (cited in (Moxley, 1992) had this to say about cognition and behaviorism in 1928: COMPONENTS OF THEORIES In other words Behaviorism cannot be anything more than a science of mechanics dealing with the mechanical movements of Organisms. Rather a science Responses to certain physical stimulus. To point out Skinner began to move away from his attachment to a mechanical view

Similar Documents

Sociology Essay

591 words - 3 pages Most sociologists interpret social life and place the theory into one of three major frameworks. A theory is a statement pertaining to how some parts of the world fit together and how they work. (Henslin, 2013) The three theories sociologists have created are based on observations made while examining social life during interactions at the macro level and micro level. These theories include: symbolic interactionism, functional analysis and

Leadership, Teambuilding, And Communication Bus 322 – Organizational Behavior

1297 words - 6 pages Leadership, Teambuilding, and Communication BUS 322 – Organizational Behavior Dr. John Theodore Prepared by Richard Winland 27 February 2014 Abstract  The purpose of this paper is to show how leadership, teambuilding, and communication affect an organization. The organization that was researched for this paper is The United States Navy. This paper will also examine contemporary, traditional, , and emerging leadership theories

Globalization Theory Essay

1715 words - 7 pages Theories of International Trade & the Multinational Enterprise Theories of International Trade & the Multinational Enterprise International trade is the exchange of goods and services across borders. Trade provides people with greater selection of goods and services to choose from. The importance of international trade to a nation economic welfare and development suggest that economies need to export goods and services in order

International Business Essay

1506 words - 7 pages Catalogues 1) Hill, C.W.L. 2009 International Business: Competing In The Global Marketplace, 7th ed, McGraw Hill/Irwin, Australia. * The book explains all international trade theories and all other aspects of doing business, including entry strategies, different cultural and ethical aspects that one must consider before entering into global market. Good theories on international monetary system. Best thing of the book is how it related all