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Cognitive Views On Learning Essay

3462 words - 14 pages

“Between stimulus and response there is a space. In that space lies our freedom and power to choose our response. In our response lies our growth and freedom.” Viktor Emil Frankl, M.D., Ph.D (Man's Search for Meaning; 1946 )
Everyone of us, Human or animal alike, have been living in this world since the primordial time. Coping with every change that had happened and developing new routine in everyday life. Routines that may soon be etch with in our system. That will eventually turn out to be a habit. A habit that will consume our senses until it will all become our Behavior. As to Psychologists, Behaviorism is more concerned with behavior than with thinking, feeling, or knowing. It ...view middle of the document...

  Although the Progressive movement is often associated with political reform its’ affects were felt much more broadly.  The Progressive Movement is a natural evolution of the liberal philosophies that began with John Locke and put into practice by Thomas Jefferson.   The defining concept is the idea that society is bound together by an implicit social contract permitting political autonomy and individual rights in exchange for an obligation of stewardship of the social needs of others. 
As early as 1897, the roots of behaviorism can be found in the laboratory of sociologist Franklin Henry Giddings who created a “sympathy scale”, purporting to measure the levels of sympathy between races. (Mills, 1998).  Mills knew that his scale was inherently racist, but this was not a problem of political correctness as much as it was a problem of measurement.  To overcome criticisms of lack of objective measurement Giddings rejected states of mind, internal mental mechanisms, and the unconscious and operationally defined behaviors that he believed represented sympathy (Mills, 1998).
As years passed by and Psychologists and Philosphers alike started developing and discovering new beyond for knowledge Behaviorism had it's earliest start with the work of a Russian physiologist named Ivan Pavlov. Pavlov's research on the digestive systems of dogs led to his discovery of the classical conditioning process, which demonstrated that behaviors could be learned via conditioned associations. Pavlov demonstrated that this learning process could be used to make an association between and environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus.( McLeod, S. A. (2007). Pavlov's Dogs. Retrieved from
After Pavlov’s discovery an American psychologist named John B. Watson soon became one of the strongest advocates of behaviorism. The structure that Watson illustrated for the behaviorism was a discipline based heavily in rationalist thought, and on the precept that learning is the major influence on development and behavior (Rilling, 2000).  Initially outlining the basics principles of this new school of thought in his 1913 paper Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It,
The impact of behaviorism was enormous, and this school of thought continued to dominate for the next 50 years. In likely manner Psychologist B.F. Skinner furthered the behaviorist perspective with his concept of operant conditioning, which demonstrated the effect of punishment and reinforcement on behavior. (Skinner, B. F. (1938). The Behavior of Organisms: An Experimental Analysis. New York: Appleton-Century.)
While behaviorism eventually lost its hold on psychology, the basic principles of behavioral psychology are still widely in use today. Therapeutic techniques such as behavior analysis, behavioral modification and token economies are often utilized to help children learn new skills and overcome maladaptive behaviors, while conditioning is used in many...

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