CONDITION | SYMPTOMS | DURATION/HISTORY | DIAGNOSIS | TREATMENT | COUNSELLING/LIFESTYLE ADVICE |
Common cold (URTI) | * Sore throat * Sneezing * Rhinitis and congestion * Postnasal drip * Cough * Headache, mild fever | Usually resolves after 1 week, may take up to 2 weeksRefer to GP if it’s been longer | Caused by rhinovirus, very common, symptoms are in response to invading pathogen(Differentiate from influenza, which typically only occurs in winter) | * Treat symptoms, not actual virus * Paracetamol (analgesic) * Pseudoephedrine (decongestant) * Nasal decongestant sprays * Lozenges (sore throat) | * Rest * Maintain fluids * Practice good hygiene |
Cough ...view middle of the document...
Perennial: Caused by dust mite, animal danderHayfever: Caused by pollen and fungal sporesMay also be due to overuse of nasal decongestant, pregnancy or URTI | * Antihistamines: Zyrtec (cetirizine), Claramax (desloratidine), Telfast (fexofenadine), Phenergan (promethazine) * Decongestant: pseudoephedrine * Intranasal corticosteroids: Rhinocort (budesonide), Beconase (fluticasone), Nasonex (mometasone) * Antihistamine eye drops: naphazoline with pheniramine or antazoline * Nasal decongestants: oxymetazoline, phenylephrine, xylometazoline * Saline nasal drops | * Avoid allergens * Wash sheets, curtains and other household furnishings, air regularly * Practice good hygiene * Visit GP if symptoms persist/ worsen |
Sinusitis/Rhinosinusitis | * Inflammation of one or more paranasal sinuses * Nasal blockage or congestion * Nasal discharge * Post-nasal drip * Facial pain or pressure (can be excruciating) * Reduction or loss of smell | Acute: Infection lasts up to 4 weeksRecurrent acute: >4 episodes per yearChronic: Symptoms last >12 weeks, acute exacerbations | Possibly a post-viral infection, sinuses are filled with stagnant nasal secretions which may be infected with bacteria | * ALWAYS REFER TO GP! * Maintain condition with FESS, intranasal corticosteroids, nasal decongestants, analgesics and inhalations | * VISIT GP! |
Otitis media (middle ear infection) | * Inflammation of the middle ear * Ear pain * Typically appears in children (< 8 years) * Child rubs ear and is irritable * Thick, mucus discharge | Refer to GP as soon as possible.Healing can take around 1 - 2 months. | Caused by virus spreading to middle ear via Eustachian tube (more common in children due to anatomy of Eustachian tube).Accumulation of pus in middle ear.Inflammation of tympanic membrane. | * REFER TO GP! * Simple analgesics for pain relief | * VISIT GP! |
Otitis externa (Swimmer’s ear) | * General inflammation of ear canal * Itching and irritation, THEN pain * Otorrhoea * External ear is red, swollen and eczematous * Clear, watery discharge | Generally acute, occurs after swimming (heat and humidity exacerbate infection)Patients with seborrhoeic dermatitis are predisposed to otitis externa | Caused by microorganism growth – bacterial or fungal. These can enter the ear canal via a number of routes, but water in the ear canal is the most common. | * REFER TO GP! * Treat with antibiotic/antifungal ear drops * Prevent with acetic acid or ethanol ear drops (after swimming) – do NOT use if skin is damaged | * During treatment, use cotton balls smeared with petroleum jelly while showering * Keep ears dry to prevent infection |
Dermatitis of the ear (seborrhoeic, allergic, contact or aptopic dermatitis) | * Itch, WITHOUT pain and discharge * If seborrhoeic or atopic, dermatitis lesions may be elsewhere on the body | | | | |
Ear wax impaction | * History of gradual hearing...