Journal of Change Management Vol. 6, No. 3, 235 –256, September 2006
Challenging the Code of Change: Part 2. Crossing the Rubicon: Extending the Integration of Change
Haldane Associates, Middlesex
ABSTRACT It has been argued that the two most common approaches to change management adopted by organizations, Theory E and Theory O, represent an inefﬁcient dichotomy and integrating elements of both into any change initiative has been proposed. The dichotomy in a Theory E approach, incorporating practices driven by an economic imperative and a Theory O approach, incorporating practices for improving organizational capability are questioned by this research. By comparing the ...view middle of the document...
Tel.: þ44 (0)797 326 9451; Email: email@example.com 1469-7017 Print=1479-1811 Online=06=030235–22 # 2006 Taylor & Francis DOI: 10.1080=14697010600683153
2. The identiﬁcation of frequently occurring and important dimensions in other change management models. This led to the development of a proposed extension to the integrated model for managing enterprise change as shown in Table 1. This second paper explores the case for extending the integrated model and assesses its utility as an assessment tool in organizations by reviewing change management practice in a large company. The early part of this paper describes the research approach and ﬁndings and concludes with recommendations on how to extend the original Theory E/Theory O model proposed by Beer and Nohria (2000).
Testing the Model
The model in Table 1 was tested through research in a large ﬁnancial services organization in order to assess its utility against the current approach taken to managing change in a portfolio of change projects. This research did not seek to challenge the strategic decision making, strategic choices or the process used for determining those choices already made by the business. Rather it focused on an assessment of how easily the integrated list of critical success factors (CSFs), the ‘proposed dimensions’ identiﬁed (see Table 1), can be applied and how well the current change management process works. The research philosophy underpinning the process was descriptive in nature as it involved a comparison of the organization with an aggregated and integrated framework based on comparative research of 18 different change management frameworks. The testing of this model adopted a positivist approach in terms of research philosophy (Saunders et al., 2003). The important issue for the research was the identiﬁcation of those factors that may incrementally improve the way management of change activity occurs going forward and whether these observations could be generalized. The research approach combined both a deductive and inductive emphasis within the review and study. The approach was deductive in the testing and challenge of existing theory for change management. However, there was a requirement within the study to ensure multiple sources of evidence in order to qualify the strengths and weaknesses of the current change management approach and use these for developing the tool.
1. The organization under review does not currently manage change management programmes in an integrated manner. 2. It is possible to develop an assessment approach for supporting change programme establishment based on this integrated framework.
Research Interview Approach
The interview approach was semi-structured (Saunders et al., 2003) in order to allow the participants to provide divergent opinions about the approach to
Table A1.1 Proposed integrated model Table 5.0 - Proposed Integrated Model Theory E/O Dimensions...