Causes Of The 2008 Financial Crisis

1830 words - 8 pages

Genetic Engineering is considered as a dominant and quite dangerous set of tool. It is the process in which the DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid which makes up the genes for all living things) is extracted from one organism to put it in another organism’s DNA, therefore it introduces in hereditary traits into the receiver organism (“How Stuff Works”). The nature and characteristics of all living things are determined by special combinations of genes that are carried in their cells, therefore the least changes or alteration can bring a major amount of changes in an organism and its offspring (“How Stuff Works”). Genetic Engineering does not only consist in plants, animal breeding and ...view middle of the document...

There are significant techniques that involve the process of Genetic Engineering, which involves the alternating an organism’s genome to craft a beneficial result, hence they fall into three various categories, which are the plasmid method, the vector method, and the biolistic method (ThinkQuest). The first techniques of Genetic Engineering known as the plasmid method generally use to manipulate or alternate microorganisms such as bacteria (ThinkQuest). In a plasmid method, a little ring of DNA named plasmid (usually found in bacteria), which placed in a container along with special restriction enzymes that cut DNA at a certain sequence (ThinkQuest). The similar enzymes are then used to treat the DNA sequence also allowed them to be engineered into bacteria, in which it produces “sticky ends” helps to fuse them together (ThinkQuest). The second step: the two separate cut-up DNA sequences are placed in the same container, thus the “sticky ends” allow them to fuse with one another, this allows a ring of DNA to be formed with extra content, therefore new enzymes are added to help strengthen the linkages, the molecules are separated by the molecular weight (ThinkQuest). Those molecules that weight the most are effectively incorporated the new DNA, they are not to be preserved (ThinkQuest).
The third step sort of involves of adding a newly formed plasmid to nourish the live bacteria with genomes, thus some of the bacteria will absorb or take the floating plasmids and begin to express them (ThinkQuest). The DNA in then introduced into the plasmid it only doesn’t have the instructions for making protein, also creates antibiotic resistant genes (ThinkQuest). The resistant genes are then used to separate the bacteria, which have not taken up the plasmids (ThinkQuest). The scientist simply takes the suitable antibiotic; this allows the surviving bacteria to be virtually guaranteed (causing impulsive mutation) for processing new genes. The final step in which the scientist allows the successfully alternated bacteria to grow and reproduce. This way it can be used in experiments or put in industrial use (ThinkQuest). Therefore, the bacteria can is allowed to evolve own its own, with the help of “selection pressure” provided by the scientist to make more proteins. By the power to use of “natural selection” the bacteria will overtake many of its early generations leading the advancement in genes and medicine. The second method of genetic engineering is known as the vector method (ThinkQuest). It is quite similar to the plasmid method, but its products are planted right into the genome by a viral vector (ThinkQuest). The steps of this method are almost same from the plasmid method: the viral DNA cut-off and the DNA is inserted containing the same enzyme, combined with the two DNA sequences, those that are successfully fused are separated (ThinkQuest). The only key alteration is the portions of the viral DNA, such as those that cause virulence, must be...

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