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Case Ita Essay

1858 words - 8 pages

Case 19 ZARA

 

Nel 2008 Inditex, il retailer base della Spagna ha gestito piu di mille Zara store circa alrti 3000 in 70 nazioni.

Piette il direttore moda di LVMH descrive Zara come il piu innovativo e devastante venditore a dettaglio nel mondo. Chic si, Redditizio: si, Alti prezzi: no.

 

La storia di Zara è un insieme di attente strategie di risorse, merchandising, distribuzione tutte volte a creare un nuovo modello di ricavo,  di margini lordi, e di capitale circolante.

 

Amacio Ortega: inizia a lavorare in un piccolo negozio a La Coruna, poi negli anni ’60 inizia a disegnare e produrre alcun indumenti da solo e apre un suo store nel ’63.

Obiettivo: fare e vendere ...view middle of the document...

Se va bene allora aumentano la produzione ma non troppo in modo da aver sovrabbondanza. Se un prodotto non va invece bloccano subito la produzione. ( non c’è cosi neanche bisogno di abbassare i prezzi, cosa che di solito si fa per le cose invendute, visto che Zara non ne ha).

 

Un’altra cosa è che non usavo paesi low-cost come la Cina per la loro produzione ma si accordano con citta spagnole e portoghesi. Anche se spendono un po di piu hanno cmq extramargini superiori rispetto ai rivali xkè cmq loro non hanno sprechi, ne riduzioni di prezzo, ne il problema di una collezione sbagliata.

 

La politica Fast Fashion ha anche delle implicazioni per il modello di ricavo.

Perchè molti capi spariscono dopo una settimana dall'entrata nello store. Questo puo essere sintomo di scarsità ma c'è il risvolto positivo. Questo spinge i clienti a comprare subito il capo perchè potrebbero non trovarlo piu e li spinge anche a tornare piu spesso per vedere le novità. E anche perchè cosi non tutti indosserebbero le stesse cose ma ci sarebbe + varietà.

Modello di capitale Circolante: l'industria manifatturiera vicina e il cambio di inventory veloce è buono.

In cambio del fatto di comprare grossi volumi, i fornitori gli danno in favore 60 giorni di termine.

I clienti che pagano cash o carta di credito fanno si che Zara abbia i soldi in meno di una settimana quindi il veloce cambio di inventory accoppiato al veloce pagamento del customer e il lento pagamento per il merchandise. ( attrattivo modello di capitale circolante).

Con la politica come Gap, chi compra punta su quale potrà essere la prossima moda se un capo o un altro... (Leap of Faith).

A Gap è richiesto di pagare in anticipo i suoi fornitori. Nel 2006 ha circa 55 mln in liquidità vincolate sullo stato patrimoniale. Poi arrivano dagli usa o dall'europa e riempiono l'inventario. Molto differente da Zara.

La politica di Zara sorpassa anche H&M e di molto Gap.

La rapidità e la flessibilità contano più del prezzo.

Zara incrementa i suoi ricavi mentre Gap incontra un po di declino.

Il prezzo è importante ma arriva per secondo, per prima la giusta moda.

Case 20: Amazon

Amazon viene lanciato come un sito per vendere libri nel 95.

Si focalizza su 3 punti chiave per i clienti : migliore selezione, prezzi bassi, spedizioni veloci e convenienti.

La prima strategia è la GBF (Get Big Fast), e ha un buon ricavo per essere attivo da 4 anni. Ha un vasto assortimento perciò funziona. Aumenta in grandezza anche lo spazio dei centri di sistribuzione.

Però stava cmq spendendo troppo e incorrono in perdite raggiungendo 720 mln. Cioè il modello di margini lordi e il modello operativo non erano in sincronia. Non c'erano abbastanza margini per coprire i costi operativi ( magazzino, staff, tecnologia dell'informazione...) .

Il cash rimaneva oltretutto legato all'inventory da 21 a 49 giorni per al fine di scongiurare le denunce per lo scarso servizio che gli altri...

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