1. The United States and Brazil have their differences in slavery. Slaves in Brazil tended to die younger than North American slaves. Defining the children of slaves as slaves was not as economically important as it was in the United States. Long time Portuguese immigrants to Brazil were mostly male. Also, creating a clear “black-white” dichotomy was not as important as it was in the United States.
2. There are several ways that whitening was pursued. One way is that they encouraged and subsidized the immigration of European workers and completely banned black immigration. Whitening in Brazil also included active encouragement of racial intermarriage to improve black genetics with ...view middle of the document...
It also refused to use patronage to gain political support. Lula and the party represented a grassroots critique of the entire Brazilian political elite.
6. The first promise is that the PT would drop its opposition to forming coalitions. It also promised to drop its insistence on socialism as an economic policy and led a government that preserved most of the prior government’s economic policies. They also bribed members of Congress to vote for its policies. This revealed that once in office it has also fallen into long standing patterns of clientelism and patronage in order to rule.
7. The popularity of Lulas’s government and its innovative social welfare program and rapid economic growth gave him approval ratings of 75 percent. This prompted Barack Obama to call him the most popular politician in the world. It was a shock when massive demonstrations erupted three years later against the government of his handpicked successor, Dilma Rousseff. Participation burst dramatically beyond institutional boundaries as Brazilians expressed their extreme anger over a stagnant economy, massive corruption, and what they saw as the government’s misplaced priorities.
8. The first social group to receive welfare assistance from the Brazilian government was the Bolsa Familia. The program provided food and cash, grants, and targeted poor and very poor households. It provided grants to poor parents who guaranteed they will send their children to school and utilize children’s health services.