2. According to Stella Cortell the first 3 views of intelligence are:
i. Intelligence is a “general, underlying cleverness which is fixed for life”.
ii. There can be multiple intelligences, not just one general intelligence.
iii. Intelligence can be developed.
a) 1st View of intelligence. Intelligence is a general underlying cleverness which is fixed for life.
This view was supported by early psychologist who believed that each and every person has a general level of intelligence. This was known as the IQ in full the intelligence Quotient. The Psychologist who supported this included Charles Spearman An Terman. They believed tht Intelligence was single fixed.
Charles Spearman for example created a theory ...view middle of the document...
b) 2nd View of intelligence. There is multiple intelligence, not one general intelligence.
This according to Thurstone, he did an experiment involving several college students. He tried to prove that there was no evidence of any general fixed form of intelligence. He created the Standard Deviation Test as opposed to using the IQ Test. Another psychologist called Gardener chose seven abilities that he held to meet these criteria.
1) Linguistic: involves having a mastery of language. This intelligence includes the ability to effectively manipulate language to express oneself rhetorically or poetically. It also allows one to use language as a means to remember information.
2) Mathematical/Logical: consists of the ability to detect patterns, reason deductively and think logically. This intelligence is most often associated with scientific and mathematical thinking.
3) Spatial: gives one the ability to manipulate and create mental images in order to solve problems. This intelligence is not limited to visual domains-- Gardner notes that spatial intelligence is also formed in blind children.
4) Musical: encompasses the capability to recognize and compose musical pitches, tones, and rhythms.
5) Bodily Kinesthetic: is the ability to use one's mental abilities to coordinate one's own bodily movements. This intelligence challenges the popular belief that mental and physical activity are unrelated.
6) Interpersonal: the ability to understand and discern the feelings and intentions of others. for example being a counselor.
7) Intrapersonal: the ability to understand one's own feelings and motivations.