Running Head: THE HEALTH BELIEF MODEL, AND PROSTATE CANCER
What is the Impact of the New Prostate Cancer screening guidelines on Black Men?
And The Health Belief Model
August 1st 2014
Prostate cancer is a highly prevalent disease with an estimate of 30,000 deaths and 233,000 new cases predicted for the United States in 2014 (ACS, 2014). It is the second leading cause of cancer death in American men but is highly survivable if diagnosed correctly. In fact, the American Cancer Society (2014) has stated the relative five and ten year survival rates for the disease are 100 percent and 99 percent respectively. These figures ...view middle of the document...
The USPSTF states their research found that approximately 80 % of PSA test are false positives (USPSTF,2012). Over-diagnosis and overtreatment for men who have the disease but may remain asymptomatic throughout their lives is the focus of the USPSTF recommendations. Prostate Cancer education has been suggested in addition to watching the disease and waiting for further action (Mayo Clinic, 2012).
The new guidelines are being reviewed and then adopted by other organizations. At this time, the American Cancer Society recommends that men thinking about prostate cancer screening should make informed decisions based on available information, discussion with their doctor, and their own views on benefits and side effects of screening and treatment” (2014).
Opposition has argued many concerns in reference to the USPDTF findings. The president of the Prostate Health Education Network (2012) contends that the USPSTF continues to ignore the benefits of screening for men with a family history of Prostate Cancer, Veterans exposed to Agent Orange, and men with an above average baseline PSA in their 40’s. Government providers like Medicare continue to cover the PSA test (Medicare, 2014). Research suggests that the lack of representation among black men included in the studies make the recommendations short sighted (PHEN, 2012). This is especially due to Prostate Cancer affecting black men disproportionately more than any other race. According to the National Cancer Institute (2004), Black men in the U.S. had a 62.3 death rate in comparison to a 25.6 death rate in white men. The two studies conducted by the USPSTF had a cohort of men that were primarily of European decent. The recommendations made by the USPSTF are primarily based on observations from large clinical trials performed in Europe, Canada, and the United States; very few black men participated in the studies (National Medical Association, 2011). This observation was included in the taskforce’s research. However, the same recommendation in regards to the PSA screening was generalized to black men (USPSTF, 2012). There is an extensive collection of research that indicates variables such as education, socio-economic-status (SES), cultural norms, and genetics factor into the incidence and death rate disparities facing black men when compared to other races (Modlin,2012). Those same variables highlight the concern on whether or not the USPTSF findings should be a blanket recommendation for all groups. Many successful interventions have used the boost of prostate-cancer awareness and early screenings as goals to their program. (Chan, Vernon, Odonell, Ahn, Gresinger and Ada, 2003) The findings from this research (Particularly the recommendations against the PSA test) could have a negative impact on this population’s perceived susceptibility, severity, and self-efficacy in regards to education and the screening process involved with Prostate Cancer. Is there a consensus being built on the...