“Smoking is the leading preventable cause of death in the United States,” (“Health Effects of Cigarette Smoking”, 2014, para.2). Each year it is responsible for 480,000 deaths, which is more than Human Immunodeficiency Virus, illegal drug use, alcohol use, motor vehicle injuries, and fire arm related incidents combined. There have been ten times more premature deaths due to tobacco use than casualties during all noted American wars in United States history (“Health Effects of Cigarette Smoking”, 2014, para.2). Use of tobacco products causes cancer of the nose, mouth, larynx, trachea, esophagus, throat, lungs, liver, stomach, pancreas, kidneys, bladder, cervix, bone marrow, ...view middle of the document...
661). The HBM uses four specific variables to determine or predict behavior: susceptibility, severity, barriers, and benefits. The model predicts that a person is more likely to accept a positive health behavior if he or she perceives few barriers and significant benefits of adopting that behavior. Also, a person is more likely to accept or avoid behaviors based on the perceived susceptibility of having a negative outcome from a certain behavior and the severity of possible outcomes. In contrast, if a person believes that they are not susceptible to a specific negative outcome, or that barriers are greater than the health benefits, he or she is not likely to adopt the positive health behavior (Carpenter, 2010, p. 661-662).
Carpenter used meta-analysis of 18 Health Belief Model studies to determine the strength of the relationships between each of the four variables and health behaviors (Carpenter, 2010, p. 661). The results of the analysis show that barriers and benefits both have a very strong correlation to the prediction of health behaviors. Susceptibility, however, proved to have a weak relationship to behavior, as did severity (Carpenter, 2010, p. 666-667). The findings of this analysis show that it may be of more importance for healthcare providers to incorporate knowledge of benefits into health teaching and limit barriers to positive health changes than to stress severity or susceptibility of negative outcomes. A health care professional can choose to apply smoking knowledge and statistics within the framework of the HBM to establish meaning and successful health education to the patient.
The articles for research were obtained using the CINAHL, nursing database located in the University of Alabama in Huntsville electronic library. Inclusions for search criteria included being obtained from a research article and the use of at least one nursing author. Articles or studies that were not peer reviewed and not exclusively research based were excluded, along with articles published before 2009.
In recent years there have been many studies conducted on different cancers and infinite aspects of the subject but one, in particular, stood apart. Lamb, Dawson, Gagan, and Peddie (2013) did research with the confirmed knowledge of cigarette smoking having a direct relationship with cervical cancer. The purpose was to determine whether female smokers referred to the colposcopy department at a city hospital required more follow-up visits, treatment, and re-referrals than a non-smoker. The participants included 494 women that met the criteria of being a new patient coming to the colposcopy clinic in 2001, between the ages of 20 and 69 years with low or high grade intraepithelial lesions on their cervix. They gathered the data from clients’ clinical records, and the patients’ smoking statuses were collected at each clinic appointment. Ethical approval from the University of Otago Board of Studies was...