• (1904–1990) Reported that he was brought up in a warm, stable family environment.
• As he was growing up, Skinner was greatly interested in building all sorts of things, an interest that followed him throughout his professional life.
• He received his PhD in psychology from Harvard University in 1931 and eventually returned to Harvard after teaching in several universities.
• He had two daughters, one of whom is an educational psychologist and the other an artist.
• Skinner was a prominent spokesperson for behaviorism and can be considered the FATHER OF THE BEHAVIORAL APPROACH TO PSYCHOLOGY.
• Skinner championed radical behaviorism, which places ...view middle of the document...
• Bandura and his colleagues did pioneering work in the area of social modeling and demonstrated that modeling is a powerful process that explains diverse forms of learning.
• In his research programs at Stanford University, Bandura and his colleagues explored social learning theory and the prominent role of observational learning and social modeling in human motivation, thought, and action.
• By the mid-1980s Bandura had renamed his theoretical approach social cognitive theory, which shed light on how we function as self-organizing, proactive, self-reflective, and self-regulating beings. This notion that we are not simply reactive organisms shaped by environmental forces or driven by inner impulses represented a dramatic shift in the development of behavior therapy. Bandura broadened the scope of behavior therapy by exploring the inner cognitive-affective forces that motivate human behavior.
• There are some existential qualities inherent in Bandura’s social cognitive theory. Bandura has produced a wealth of empirical evidence that demonstrates the life choices we have in all aspects of our lives.
• In Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control, Bandura shows the comprehensive applications of his theory of self-efficacy to areas such as human development, psychology, psychiatry, education, medicine and health, athletics, business, social and political change, and international affairs.
• Bandura has concentrated on four areas of research: (1) the power of psychological modeling in shaping thought, emotion, and action; (2) the mechanisms of human agency, or the ways people influence their own motivation and behavior through choice; (3) people’s perceptions of their efficacy to exercise influence over the events that affect their lives; and (4) how stress reactions and depressions are caused.
• Bandura has created one of the few megatheories that still thrive at the beginning of the 21st century. He has shown that people need a sense of self-efficacy and resilience to create a successful life and to meet the inevitable obstacles and adversities they encounter.
• To date Bandura has written nine books, many of which have been translated into various languages. In 2004 he received the Outstanding Lifetime Contribution to Psychology Award from the American Psychological Association. In his early 80s, Bandura continues to teach and do research at Stanford University and to travel throughout the world.
Behavior therapy practitioners focus on observable behavior, current determinants of behavior, learning experiences that promote change, tailoring treatment strategies to individual clients, and rigorous assessment and evaluation. Behavior therapy has been used to treat a wide range of psychological disorders with different client populations.
Anxiety disorders, depression, substance abuse, eating disorders, domestic violence, sexual problems, pain management, and hypertension have all been successfully treated using this...