PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE THE HUMAN PERSON
Give me a dozen healthy infants, well- formed and my own specified world to bring them up in and I’ll guarantee to take any one at a random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select- doctor, lawyer, merchant- chief, and, yes, even beggar man and thief, regardless of his talents, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors.
- John B. Watson, 1930
¡ Ψ A Psychological perspective and a Learning theory that focuses on objectively observable behaviors and defines learning as the acquisition of new behavior through conditioning that occurs through interaction with the ...view middle of the document...
CONDITIONED STIMULUS- in classical conditioning, an unconditionally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger an unconditioned response.
Differences Between Classical and Operant Conditioning
¡ First described by Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist
¡ Involves placing a neutral signal before a reflex
¡ Focuses on involuntary, automatic behaviors
¡ Classical conditioning involves pairing a previously neutral stimulus (such as the sound of a bell) with an unconditioned stimulus (the taste of food). This unconditioned stimulus naturally and automatically triggers salivating as a response to the food, which is known as the unconditioned response. After associating the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus, the sound of the bell alone will start to evoke salivating as a response. The sound of the bell is now known as the conditioned stimulus and salivating in response to the bell is known as the conditioned response.
¡ First described by B. F. Skinner, an American psychologist
¡ Involves applying reinforcement or punishment after a behavior
¡ Focuses on strengthening or weakening voluntary behaviors
¡ Operant conditioning focuses on using either reinforcement or punishment to increase or decrease a behavior. Through this process, an association is formed between the behavior and the consequences for that behavior. For example, imagine that a trainer is trying to teach a dog to fetch a ball. When the dog successfuly chases and picks up the ball, the dog receives praise as a reward. When the animal fails to retrieve the ball, the trainer withholds the praise. Eventually, the dog forms an association between his behavior of fetching the ball and receiving the desired reward.
AND THEIR WORKS
IVAN PETROVICH PAVLOV
E- Educated @ the University...