Autism Essay

2736 words - 11 pages


Autism or PPD (pervasive developmental disorder) is defined by the Columbia encyclopedia as a rare neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by the inability to relate to and perceive the environment in a realistic manner. The onset of the disorder is in infancy or early childhood, generally before the age of thirty months, and males are affected four times as often as females. Symptoms include impairment in social interaction, fixation on inanimate objects, inability to communicate normally, and resistance to changes in daily routine (Anthes, 1997). 

Characteristics of Autism 
Diagnosing Autism is based on four characteristics: difficulty with language, abnormal responses to ...view middle of the document...


History of Autism 
In 1943, a man by the name of Leo Kanner formally identified autism; he labeled the disorder ?autistic disturbance of affective contact? (?Autism Web? n.d.). Autism was first described in America, officially, in 1980 with the publication of DSMIII (Tanguay, Robertson, Derrick, 1980). There was much confusion, both before and after Kanner's description, regarding the continuity of autism with schizophrenia and other then-recognized forms of psychosis (Lippcott/Williams & Wilkins, 1999). Kanner noticed that autistic infants had a reverse pattern typically observed in normal infants. Infants are normally interested in social, as opposed to nonsocial environments. 

Source of Autism 
The cause for autism remains unclear, although most neurological studies seem to indicate a dysfunction in the brain as a possible reason. Autism has been found in children with brain abnormalities such as congenital rubella syndrome, neurofibromatosis, and tuberous sclerosis. Autism can also be present in genetic syndromes such as fragile X syndrome and phenylketonuria. Some research has shown that there may be an autism gene, or two genes working together. These genes are thought to be on the seventh and thirteenth chromosome. The disorder is, in some instances, may be hereditary as shown by twin studies that cite there is a ?substantially higher rate in identical twins?so much so that heritablity is over 90%?, says Joseph Piven (cited in ?Applied Genetics News?, 1999). In a Harvard Mental Health letter (1997) statistics found that the rate of autism and mild retardation in brothers, sisters and fraternal twins of autistics is 50-100 times higher than average and in identical twins the rate is 65% to 90%. In 1980 it was found that among 11 families with a father diagnosed with autism more than half of their children were autistic. The apparently normal parents of autistic children had undiagnosed mild symptoms of autism when tested. 

The Center for Disease Control and Prevention states that one in 500 children in America suffer from autism. Autistic children are unable to recognize themselves or remember things that they have just done. For example, if an autistic child were to show someone a toy of theirs, they would forget they had just shown it and show the toy repeatedly as if they have never presented it before. They may examine a simple little toy or electronic device for hours without losing interest, or rock back and forth in a particular spot for an entire afternoon. The repetitions of little things seem to be a grand achievement for these children. 

Diagnosing Autism 
In diagnosing, or assessing autism the child?s history is taken into consideration. For instance whether or not the family has autism in any other branches of its tree can help to determine whether a child may or may not have autism. The Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (1999) states: Aspects of the assessment will vary...

Other assignments on Autism

Valdez Oil Spill Essay

955 words - 4 pages Class: Developmental Psychology II Prof.: Elisabeth Geiling Subject: Reaction to Human Development Article Session: Fall 2014 Pam Belluck, in her “Study Finds That Brains with Autism Fail to Trim Synapses as They Develop,” reports on a new study that establishes the correlation between autism in children and a surplus of synapses in some parts of the brain. This may explain some symptoms like oversensitivity to noise or social

Science Essay

1274 words - 6 pages 2.1 Definitions and diagnosis There is now 'a high degree of consensus on the diagnostic criteria for autism and consistency in the evidence on the validation of autism as a diagnostic category.' (Rutter, 1996, p. 257). Kanner (1943) first identified a condition in eleven cases that he felt had sufficient in common, and were sufficiently different from other conditions, to merit a separate syndrome. He referred to this disorder as

Developmental Disabilities

1416 words - 6 pages autism and Down syndrome they are just overly sweet. So you can say you care about them and they can actually develop a crush on you. Like Irvine mentioned about the friend situation they can also think you may be talking about a little more than friends but not necessarily mean it in a harmful way. They just understand things differently. Just because these individuals are born with these developmental disabilities it doesn’t mean that they

Perspectives Groups

1811 words - 8 pages groups are students with ADHD, Down Syndrome, and Autism. We will take a look at some of the common characteristics these three groups of students have, some challenges that an educator My have to overcome when it comes to teaching that particular group of students, what special learning opportunities can be offered to the whole class, and some specific strategies to help each group of students to be able to successfully succeed. First, let us

Importance On Early Childhood Education

326 words - 2 pages kids should be spending with their parents. So much of what they are taught can be learned in day-to-day life (letters and early reading, counting and numbers, colors and behavior) from their parents, family, friends, and the world they interact with. Putting most kids in a classroom setting at 2, 3 or 4 years old is not necessary. There are issues (speech or hearing delays, autism, learning disabilities, etc.) that should be handled by

Life Span 1-3

974 words - 4 pages measure this investigation. The hypothesis was that coping humor would relief stress and FACES IV would set balance in both the cohesion and flexibility of the child and the family. Seventy-Two parents of children that had autism and multiple other disorders were used and completed the CHS and the FACES IV scales. Qualitative evidence exists that shows that humor was essential for a families ability to cope with something as severe


657 words - 3 pages extremely rewarding and my enthusiasm provided not only myself with confidence but also provided the children for whom I was caring for with confidence. I worked with children of a variety of ages across a broad range of learning and behavioural needs. A lot of the children I worked with had autism, which I had studied in psychology and found it to be really fascinating. Working with these disadvantaged children was certainly rewarding. The

Vacation Planning With Autisim

637 words - 3 pages Planning a vacation for children with Autism can be confusing, nerve rattling and distressing! So upsetting that numerous families don't take the excursion that they need to take - well, no more. The way to an effective trek, extreme introversion or not, is planning. Arrangement for the extremely introverted family has an alternate importance. Yes, you ought to peruse everything and anything on your destination, yet you additionally need to set

Health Policies And Health Determinants

1446 words - 6 pages self-destructive rage. He would head but anything he could, bruising his forehead so badly his father says the blood would drain until his entire face was black and blue. His parents began to look into the state’s medical marijuana program and a doctor approved politics. While autism is not a qualifying medical condition like cancer or severe pain, and his case, the seizures are. After a few months of treatment his family saw

Bacteria In Mcrobiology

3359 words - 14 pages in one newborn monkey’s feces into another’s intestine, so that the recipient would end up with a completely new set of microbes — and, if all went as predicted, change their neurodevelopment. The experiment reflected an intriguing hypothesis. Anxiety, depression and several pediatric disorders, including autism and hyperactivity, have been linked with gastrointestinal abnormalities. Microbial transplants were not invasive brain surgery, and that

Vitamin C

934 words - 4 pages , preventing cataracts, preventing gallbladder disease, dental cavities (caries), constipation, Lyme disease, boosting the immune system, heat stroke, hay fever, asthma, bronchitis, cystic fibrosis, infertility, diabetes, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), autism, collagen disorders, arthritis and bursitis, back pain and disc swelling, cancer, and osteoporosis. Additional uses include improving physical endurance and slowing aging, as well as

Similar Documents

Autism Essay

1562 words - 7 pages Challenges of Autism Tanisha Taylor Com/156 April 28, 2013 Lawrence Daly Challenges of Autism 1 out of 88 children age 8 will have an Autism Spectrum Disorder. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, March 30, 2012) This information is very shocking to some because everybody does not know a lot about autism and its affects unless encountered with a close relative or friend of a person

Autism Essay

736 words - 3 pages Autism The Search Story I am writing my research paper over Autism. Autism is one of many mental disabilities; there are mild and severe forms of autism. People who are diagnosed with autsim are hard to visually point out because other than the far away look in their eyes, they physically look like everyone else. People with a mild form of autism talk slower and keep to themselves and have a very childish personality. Those with severe autism

Autism Essay

3105 words - 13 pages What is autism? Definition Autism is a severely incapacitating developmental disorder of brain function characterized by three major types of symptoms: impaired social interaction, problems with verbal and nonverbal communication, and unusual or severely limited activities and interests. The definition of Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is provided by the Diagnostic and Statistical manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). Children with

Autism And Mental Retardation Check Point

793 words - 4 pages Autism and Mental Retardation Check Point Roberto Castro PSY-270 07/29/2011 Professor Andrew Graham LPC Autism and Mental Retardation Check Point Autism and Mental Retardation Respond to the following: 1. List the primary features of autism. The basic features in early childhood autism are social isolation, mental retardation, language problems and stereotyped ritualistic behaviors such as rocking back and forth, lining up toys