AN INTRODUCTION TO ASSURANCE AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT AUDITING
Answers to Review Questions
1-1 The study of auditing is more conceptual in nature compared to other accounting courses. Rather than focusing on learning the rules, techniques, and computations required to prepare financial statements, auditing emphasizes learning a framework of analytical and logical skills to evaluate the relevance and reliability of the systems and processes responsible for financial information, as well as the information itself. To be successful, students must learn the framework and then learn to use logic and common sense in applying auditing concepts to various ...view middle of the document...
That is, the manager may well have different goals than the owner, and generally has more information about the "true" financial position and results of operations of the entity than the absentee owner does. If both parties seek to maximize their own self-interest, it is likely that the manager will not act in the best interest of the owner and may manipulate the information provided to the owner accordingly.
1-4 Independence is a bedrock principle for auditors. If an auditor is not independent of the client, users may lose confidence in the auditor’s ability to report objectively and truthfully on the financial statements, and the auditor’s work loses its value. From an agency perspective, if the principal (owner) knows that the auditor is not independent, the owner will not trust the auditor’s work. Thus, the agent will not hire the auditor because the auditor’s report will not be effective in reducing information risk from the perspective of the owner.
1-5 Auditing (broadly defined) is a systematic process of (1) objectively obtaining and evaluating evidence regarding assertions about economic actions and events to ascertain the degree of correspondence between those assertions and established criteria and (2) communicating the results to interested users.
Attest services occur when a practitioner issues a report on subject matter, or an assertion about subject matter, that is the responsibility of another party.
Assurance services are independent professional services that improve the quality of information, or its context, for decision makers.
1-6 The phrase systematic process implies that there should be a well-planned, logical approach for conducting an audit that involves objectively obtaining and evaluating evidence.
1-7 Audit risk is defined as the risk that the auditor may unknowingly fail to appropriately modify his or her opinion on financial statements that are materially misstated (AU 320, PCAOB AS No. 12). Materiality is defined as "the magnitude of an omission or misstatement of accounting information that, in the light of surrounding circumstances, makes it probable that the judgment of a reasonable person relying on the information would have been changed or influenced by the omission or misstatement" (AU 320, PCAOB AS No. 11).
The concept of materiality is reflected in the wording of the auditor's standard audit report through the phrase "the financial statements present fairly in all material respects." This is the manner in which the auditor communicates the notion of materiality to the users of the auditor's report. The auditor's standard report states that the audit provides only reasonable assurance that the financial statements do not contain material misstatements. The term "reasonable assurance" implies that there is some risk that a material misstatement could be present in the financial...