National Disaster Management Committee
Department of Disaster Management
Table of Contents
Introduction: The Importance of Communication 4
Emergency Communications and Warning Systems 5
Technologies behind Warning Systems 7
WARNING FLOW DIAGRAM 8
Principles of Emergency Communications 9
The Motorola Pro 5150 Handset Radio 12
Methods of communication 13
HF Radio. 19
VHF Radio. 19
UHF – Mobile / Fixed Trunk. 21
Satellite Communications. 21
POTS or Plain Old Telephone System. 21
Cellular Telephone. 22
Broadcast Services. 22
Civil Communications. 23
Military ...view middle of the document...
Things that were once reserved to the privileged few that could afford them are now commonplace, such as cellular phones and computers. What would we do without these elements of communication if they were all to disappear? As you can imagine a scenario such as this would qualify as a disaster of great magnitude!
In any disaster the key to mitigating secondary problems is the maintenance of command and control by ensuring the passage of accurate information to and from emergency managers and operational personnel. Without this, “the left hand will not know what the right hand is doing” and effective action cannot be coordinated.
All facets of the communication network must be utilized to its fullest, from civil systems to reserved stand alone emergency systems. Proper preplanning and forward deployment must be done since under an emergency situation this will help to speed up response and reduce panic and indecision. The lines of communication/liaison must be clearly established particularly where external assistance may be called upon. All these must be encompassed in a set of standard operating procedures (SOP’s) clearly delineating the communication plan.
Accuracy in communication is one of the most critical aspects of information dissemination. The fact of this can be readily appreciated particularly in disaster situations. Imagine the chaos and the resulting loss of life that can result from sending an ambulance to the scene of a multiple car pile-up at North Hill when in fact this accident occurred in North Side! Strict measures for ensuring the accuracy of information communicated during disaster situations are included in the standard operating procedures and must be followed to exact specifications.
Regardless of the situation almost all, if not all, aspects of one’s life is dominated by some form of communication. In an emergency environment the importance of communication becomes even more critical as the effort of alleviating a situation in an environment which itself may be out of control, without creating a casualty of oneself or others involved in the emergency effort is a delicate balancing act. Confusion and demoralization can occur in an emergency situation where communications and hence command and control is lost.
Emergency Communications and Warning Systems
Hazard warning dissemination is a process whereby information and advice are passed between hazard forecasting agencies and other organizations and people who may suffer loss or damage as a result of a hazardous event. Warning messages should pass from those who detect that a hazardous event may occur, to those who may be affected by it and therefore need alerting so that they may respond appropriately. There are particular instances in which members of the public may alert a forecasting agency of an event, thereby reversing the normal process of information flow.
In all but the most unexpected sudden-onset events, warnings are usually staged so that the warning...