Art History Essay

5607 words - 23 pages

Historia del libro
I. Construcción y materiales
La historia del libro se debe a una serie de innovaciones tecnológicas que han permitido, con el paso de los siglos, mejorar la calidad de conservación de los textos y el acceso a la información, mejorando también, la manejabilidad y el coste de producción. Está íntimamente ligada a las contingencias políticas y económicas, así como a la historia de las ideas y de las religiones.
La piedra fue el soporte más antiguo de escritura que ha llegado hasta nuestros días; pero la madera sería realmente el verdadero soporte del libro. Las palabras biblos y liber tienen, como primera definición, corteza interior de un árbol. En chino el ideograma ...view middle of the document...

Su elaboración era monopolio real y fue muy apreciado, por su gran utilidad, entre los pueblos de la cuenca oriental del Mediterráneo, exportándose durante siglos en rollos de alto valor, como se describe en el relato del viaje de Unamón. El uso del papiro no comenzó a ser universal hasta la época de Alejandro Magno. Su uso decayó al declinar la antigua cultura egipcia, siendo sustituido como soporte de escritura por el pergamino. Disminuyó en el transcurso del siglo V de nuestra era y desapareció del todo en el siglo XI. La mayoría de las grandes bibliotecas de Europa poseen manuscritos en papiro.
Según Plinio el Viejo, se clasificaban por su calidad en ocho clases:
1. Emporíticos: los de inferior calidad, utilizados como papel de envolver.
2. Taeneóticos: los de mala calidad.
3. Saíticos: los de baja calidad, elaborados con materiales sobrantes.
4. Anfiteátricos: los de media calidad.
5. Fanianos: los de buena calidad.
6. Livios: los de muy buena calidad.
7. Augusticos: los de alta calidad.
8. Hieráticos o regios: los de más alta calidad, sólo utilizados para textos sagrados.
Pergamino
Es un material hecho a partir de la piel de una res u otros animales, especialmente fabricado para poder escribir sobre él. La piel sigue un proceso de eliminación del vellón, adobado y estiramiento al final del cual se consiguen las láminas con las que se elabora un libro, una filacteria o los rollos que se conocían de la Antigüedad. El origen de su nombre es la ciudad de Pérgamo, donde existía una gran productividad de gran calidad de este material, pero realmente su existencia se remonta a 1500 años antes de Cristo, es decir, mucho antes de que la ciudad de Pérgamo existiera. Desde la Antigüedad se utilizó este material para escribir textos literarios, sagrados, etc. En el Antiguo Egipto y en algunas regiones de Asia Menor se utilizaba el papiro, que era un material no tan caro y más fácil de conseguir, aunque más frágil y perecedero, sobre todo en las regiones cuyo clima era menos seco que el de Egipto. Por esta razón se fue sustituyendo poco a poco el papiro por el pergamino, mucho más duradero y de mejor calidad. Pérgamo se convirtió en la ciudad productora por excelencia, dando su nombre a este material. Los volúmenes de la Biblioteca de Pérgamo pasaron a copiarse en pergamino, en sustitución del papiro. Una leyenda sin fundamento histórico[] cuenta que este cambio fue debido a que la ciudad de Alejandría, rival de la ciudad de Pérgamo en cuanto a construcción de bibliotecas y producción de textos, dejó de abastecer a Eumenes de material de papiro, material cuya distribución tenía monopolizada, pero lo cierto es que ya se venía utilizando el pergamino desde mucho antes, además de que también en estas regiones de Asia se cultivaba el papiro.

Papel
Los chinos ya fabricaban papel a partir de los residuos de la seda, la paja de arroz y el cáñamo, e incluso del algodón. Se considera tradicionalmente que el primer proceso...

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