1 Reference and Citation Examples Basic guidelines for formatting citations in the text 1. Place the complete citation within parentheses. 2. Use the words in the first part of the citation exactly as they appear in the References so that the source in the text can easily be located in the References. 3. Use the author‘s last name and year for the citation: (Smith, 2008). 4. Place the year in the citation, but do not include the month and day. 5. Use only the last name of the author, and never include the first name or initials except in a personal communication. 6. Use et al. for additional citations of a source with three to five authors: first citation – (Smith, Levy, & Jones, 2008), ...view middle of the document...
Basic guidelines for formatting the References page 1. Place the references in alphabetical order in one list. (Do not number references or separate them into categories.) 2. Use periods to separate each major element in the reference: Name, A. (Year). Article title. Journal Title, 24(4), 13-16. 3. Include the author‘s last name and first and middle initials: Smith, G. Q. (Always use initials instead of authors‘ first/middle names.) 4. Use ellipses between the sixth and final author‘s name when the source has more than eight authors: Smith, G. Q., Levy, J., Jones, B., Arthur, N. S., Banks, E., Adam, C., . . . Arnold, A. 5. Place the year in parentheses after the author‘s name: Smith, G. Q. (2008). If no year is available, put (n.d.) in parentheses. Include the month or season with the copyright for
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2 magazine articles (2010, March) or (2011, Summer). Include the month and day for newspaper articles (2009, May 7). 6. Place the name of a group author (corporations, organizations, and government agencies) first when no individual author is listed in the source. 7. Place the title of a book or article first when no author is listed in the source. 8. Capitalize the following elements of the first title mentioned in the reference: first word, proper nouns, and the first word after a colon or a dash. 9. Capitalize all major words of the second title mentioned in the reference (e.g., journal titles, newspaper titles, book titles) 10. Use italics for titles of books, journals, newspapers, movies, television shows, and long reports or studies. 11. Never use quotation marks or italics for article titles. 12. Include a retrieval date only for Internet sources that contain content that can change over time, such as Wikis. 13. Use the DOI number for electronic sources rather than the name of a database: doi:xxxxxx. If the document does not contain a DOI number, use the URL of the publisher‘s home page: Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxx. (Do not use periods at the end of a DOI number or URL address.) 14. Include database retrieval information only for sources with limited circulation. 15. Never include a source that is not mentioned in the paper. 16. Lead your reader as closely as possible to your source. Not every source will fit the examples in this guide, so you may need to combine elements from more than one option to create your entry. For more about reference building basics, review this entry from APA Style Blog: ―The Generic Reference.‖
Updated: August 2011
Table of Contents
The following examples provide information about how to format citations in text and how to format the corresponding source on the reference page. The examples are consistent with the sixth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. You may want to access http://apastyle.apa.org for information about the sixth edition of the manual. Table of Contents...