Alcoholism in Adult
Research Paper, Psych 2301
Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) is a non-curable mental disorder that’s affects millions of people worldwide. According to national institute on alcohol and alcoholism, 1 in 12 adults in U.S is suffering from AUD. If not diagnosed early, AUD can effects a person life psychologically, socially and economically.
Despite affecting the general population, studies have shown men are two to three times more likely to develop AUD than women due to generic differences (Mettmann D 2014). The androgen receptor (AR) gene, located on X chromosome contains a common polymorphism involving cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeats, which impacts ...view middle of the document...
After 2013 American Psychiatric Association issued a 5th edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (DSM-5), under DSM-5 alcohol abuse and dependence are categorized under single disorder called Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) with mild, moderate and severe sub-classification. DSM-5 will diagnose any person with Alcohol Use Disorder if he/she meet 2 or more of 11 AUD criteria. The severity of AUD will is based on the following definitions. If a person is diagnosed with 2-3 symptoms, the severity of AUD is considered mild, 4-5 is moderate and 6 or more is severe.
DSM-5 replaced recurrent alcohol legal problems symptom under alcohol abuse criteria in DSM-4 with, craving or strong desire or urge to use alcohol.
There are different factors that lead a person to develop AUD. They range from genetic, psychological to social factors.
Genetic factor, alcoholism genes influence the likelihood of developing AUD and these genes are responsible for 50% of the risk to develop AUD. There are two types of alcoholism genes, high risk genes and low risk genes. The low risk genes alter the rate of alcohol absorption metabolism by triggering the defense mechanism, these mechanism will induce withdraw symptoms such as nausea, flushing and rapid heartbeat. People who experience these symptoms tends to avoid drinking. On the other hand, high risk alcoholism genes delay to initiate defensive mechanism, this tolerance make a person drinking more alcohol without feeling symptoms such as nausea and flushing.
Psychological factors for alcoholism involves impulsiveness, low self-esteem and emotional problems. People with emotional problems may choose alcohol as their only way out, after a while that learned behavior develop to chronic alcoholism especially if a person does not receive treatment for whatever makes him/her emotional distressed.
Social factors, if a person tend to spend more time with friends who happen to drink, eventually that person will become a drinker. Stigma associated to people with drinking problems worsen the drinking habit.
Alcohol Use Disorder has a short term to long term effects. A person with AUD constantly experience withdraw symptoms which are very unpleasant. Blackout expose drinkers to sexual abuse, fetal accidents and may increase memory...