Phobias and Addictions Paper
Week Two Assignment
PSY/300 – General Psychology
October 20, 2012
This is an essay concerning phobias and addictions. Four selected topics in four specific sections are what this paper is comprised of. These topic are:
1. How phobias can be developed through classical conditioning.
2. How addictions can be developed through operant conditioning.
3. Distinguish between classical and operant conditioning.
4. The meaning of "extinction" and how it is achieved in both classical and operant conditioning.
How phobias can be developed through classical conditioning
"A phobia is a group of symptoms brought on by an object or ...view middle of the document...
The dogs would then salivate at the sound of the bell without any food actually being presented.
This shows that a addiction can be created by associating behaviors with another behavior or event. Wanting to drink paired with something else. A person could then begin to associate getting high or drunk with feelings like fun, sexuality and escape. Whenever these feeling were experienced they would trigger the urge to drink, drug and get high. A more thorough explanation
"Operant conditioning, developed by B. F. Skinner, states that a person is more likely to repeat a behavior if it is followed by a positive outcome or the removal of a negative one. These outcomes are called positive and negative reinforcements. Therefore, a person is more likely to drink or drug again if the episodes are continually followed by positive or negative reinforcements. A positive reinforcement to drinking or drugging could be a feeling of camaraderie, fun or approval of one's peers. A negative reinforcement could be the removal of a feeling of loneliness, low self-worth, boredom, or even the pain of a hangover or withdrawal symptoms. There are some successful experiments that reward people not to use drugs or alcohol, thereby positively reinforcing abstinence. The concept of enabling could fit into this model because the person doing the enabling is seen as removing the negative consequences of a person's addiction, therefore negatively reinforcing the drinking or drugging. The extra attention from the enabler could also serve as a positive reinforcement to substance abuse" (Borsos. 2008)
Distinguish between classical and operant conditioning
"Classical conditioning" is when a neutral action is paired with an unconditioned response and so begins to produce the same result as the unconditioned response stimulus does... Pavlov's dogs is a famous example of this concept...ring a bell when food is presented to the dogs and soon dogs will salivate with the ringing of a bell and no food...
"Operant conditioning" a behavior is changed by consequences...positively by praise and rewards...negatively by obstacles and punishments...behaviors are regulated by consequences in "operant conditioning"...a rewarded behavior is likely to be repeated and a punished behavior is likely to be eliminated or reduced in frequency...
The meaning of "extinction" and how it is achieved
in both classical and operant conditioning
Extinction is "the elimination of a conditioned response by withholding reinforcement" (Gale Group, 2001).
In classical conditioning a learned...