“Addiction” by Nancy A. Piotrowski, Ph.D
Addiction is when the human body becomes dependent on a substance. Prolonged use of any psychoactive drug will determine a persons dependency. The addiction can affect a person psychologically and physiologically; this will show in an addicts tolerance and withdrawal symptoms from a drug.
Tolerance will involve the biological system such as the human body, changes in the body after a drug is present, and environmental or behavioral conditioning. The way the human body processes a drug is by absorbing a drug through the bloodstream. Once in the bloodstream it will be delivered to different organs and they will metabolize ...view middle of the document...
The fastest way to consume a drug is through intravenous and inhalation routes. When taking this route the drug is rapidly put into the bloodstream. Tolerance also depends on the pattern of which a drug is used. If you have two people who use the same drug but at different rates, their tolerance will develop differently. A person who consumes two large doses in a weeks time frame will develop a tolerance before someone who consumes one small dose daily for a week.
Withdrawal symptoms will take place when a person substantially decreases the use of a substance or completely stops. The symptoms will vary depending on the substance that is being abused. Symptoms can be severe, minor or sometimes nonexistent; this will depend on the drug from which withdrawal is occurring from. Some serious symptoms that can a person can experience are seizures, convulsions, high blood pressure and rapid heartbeat. Minor symptoms can include anxiety, tension, insomnia, restlessness and irritability. Addicts will sometimes consume their drug of choice to alleviate the symptoms.
Not every person who consumes drugs will become dependent on them. To develop an addiction a person will need to repetitively consume the drug; they will also have the biological and environmental factors that will expose the behavior.
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“Family Functioning In Families With Alcohol And Other Drug Addiction” by Gabriele Schäfer
Drug addiction is on a constant rise. It plays a role in the destruction of individuals, families, local communities and large cities around the world. It holds responsibility for a number of premature deaths, violent crimes, automobile accidents and many other things.
Gabriele Shäfer performed a research study to collect data that would find contributing factors and the effects of drug abuse. There were four themes that she was able to identify in the interview process.
The first theme was finding that the participants had past childhood experiences of neglect, physical and sexual abuse. There were participants who were disowned from being sexually molested by stepparents, while others were left abandoned by their parents, or never meeting their mothers and fathers at all. There was one participant who was traumatized by their parents. They had a church perform an exorcism on him when he revealed his homosexuality. All of the participants felt there was a strong connection between their abuse of drugs and past childhood experiences.
Another finding was the participants still had difficult relationships with their families in adulthood. One relationship difficulty in particular was having an emotionally unavailable parent. Their parent was exposed to a bad upbringing which led them to be unable to maintain a healthy relationship with their child. There was another participant who expressed that his family was “littered” with addiction and that he had lost a family member to an overdose. Not only that,...